Chapter 2 of the book focuses on the theories of personality. The chapter begins with Sigmund Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis. It emphasizes the movement of psychological energy within the person in the form of attachments, conflicts, and motivations. In his theory, personality consists of three major systems; the id, the ego, and the superego. A healthy personality must keep all three systems in balance. Freud continues to explain the unconscious strategies placed when one feels threatened or anxious when the wishes of the id conflict with social rules. To relieve the tensions, the ego has a defense mechanism. Repression, projection, displacement, reaction formation, regression, and denial are various ways to relieve tensions or conflicts. Other psychodynamic approaches include the Jungian theory. Jung argues that all human beings share a vast collective unconscious, containing universal memories, symbols, images, and themes in which he calls archetypes. The chapter suggest that psychodynamic theorists differ in many ways and that they are guilty of three scientific failings: Violating the principle of falsifiability, drawing universal principles from the experience of a few atypical patients, and basing theories of personality development on retrospective accounts and the fallible memories of patients. From this, the chapter introduces different factors that may play into personality, such as, genetic theories, environmental and social cognitive learning theories, parental influence, peers, cultural, and humanist approaches.
-Shao Chien Lin (Tim Lin)